To synchronize the measurements of the microbiota, the metabolome and the colonic mucosa, the sampling was tied to the preparation for and conduct of a colonoscopy, as previously described 4 , at baseline while on their usual diet ED1, Table 1 , and then again at the conclusion of the dietary change ED2, Table 1. Our experience had shown that the quality of bowel preparation with this technique was similar to the more conventional overnight bowel washout.
The mucosa health status was assessed by visualization and biopsy. Measurements focused on the numbers of inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the lamina propria and the numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Any pathologic finding, such as the presence of parasitic organisms, was recorded. The differences were found to be the same in the total crypt and in the upper crypt; hence, only the total crypt proportions are reported here. The density of intraepithelial lymphocytes was expressed as an index of number of CD3-positive lymphocytes per epithelial cells.
Similarly, there are other microbial enzymes that participate in bile acid deconjugation, but Wells et al. Statistical analysis of the group differences in continuous variables was conducted using SPSS Complex microbiota and metabonome data were analysed by several multivariate ordinations detailed below principal component analyses and non-metric multidimensional scaling , Kruskal—Wallis independent tests and multivariate ANOVA with Bonferroni correction.
We chose the HITChip phylogenetic microarray for the global profiling of microbiota composition. DNA was isolated from fecal or colonic samples and subsequently used for phylogenetic profiling of the intestinal microbiota using the HITChip phylogenetic microarray Standardized quality control was maintained through our library of a duplicated set of 3, probes targeting the 16S rRNA gene sequences of over 1, intestinal bacterial phylotypes.
Hybridizations were performed in duplicate and data were extracted from microarray-scanned images using Agilent Feature Extraction software, version In the present work, we primarily focus on the genus-level level 2 variation. Significance of the differences between the time points Fig.
We constructed the co-occurrence networks between the genus-like bacterial groups based on their logarithmic abundances HITChip log10 signal within each treatment group African Americans and Native Africans; before and after the dietary intervention. For a robust correlation analysis, we applied the SparCC algorithm using 20 iterations and with 50 bootstrap data sets for significance testing, followed by q -value 65 correction of the pseudo P -values from the bootstrap analysis.
This provided a list of genus-like bacteria that had significant changes in their mutual correlation networks following the dietary intervention in either rural African or African American group.
To simplify interpretation, we clustered the associated genus-like groups into coherent network modules with complete-linkage hierarchical clustering based on the SparCC correlations. Networks were visualized using the network visualization and exploration platform Gephi The resulting modules are highlighted in Fig. The water peak region in urine 4.
In addition, regions 1 H 0—0. Because of the heavy peak shifting in urinary spectra, a recursive segment-wise peak alignment method was applied, to improve metabolic biomarker recovery Probabilistic quotient normalization was subsequently performed on the resulting data sets, to account for dilution of complex biological mixtures For the two-way clustered heatmap Fig.
The correlation was adjusted for country and dietary intervention to account for baseline differences. A pFDR cutoff value of 0. For each data set microbiota, fecal metabolites and urinary metabolites , the data were clustered using hierarchical cluster analyses with complete linkage.
The optimal number of clusters was chosen as the splitting that maximized the modularity using the correlation as weight of each edge in the network. All complete genome sequences listed in KEGG that could be associated to the bacterial groups represented on the HITChip were included in creating the database, resulting in a total of bacterial genomes included in the database. Next, the software was used to construct a shortest-path metabolic reaction network between all fecal and urinary metabolites significantly different in any of the different dietary comparisons.
To highlight the differential expression of the metabolites associated with specific pathways, the background shading was added to the graphs to indicate the different interconnecting pathways Fig. The abbreviations and full names of these metabolites can be found in Supplementary Table Fat, fiber and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans.
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Sponsored Document from. Trends Food Sci Technol. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Neil Stephens: ku. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Cultured meat forms part of the emerging field of cellular agriculture.
Scope and approach The paper reports the thinking of an interdisciplinary team, all of whom have been active in the field for a number of years. Key findings and conclusions Cultured meat is a promising, but early stage, technology with key technical challenges including cell source, culture media, mimicking the in-vivo myogenesis environment, animal-derived and synthetic materials, and bioprocessing for commercial-scale production. Introduction Cultured meat involves applying the practices of tissue engineering to the production of muscle for consumption as food.
Cultured meat and cellular agriculture 2. Cellular agriculture Cellular agriculture encompasses a set of technologies to manufacture products typically obtained from livestock farming, using culturing techniques to manufacture the individual product. For the remainder of this paper we focus upon cultured meat. Potential benefits of cultured meat The benefits of a cultured meat system are articulated more fully in other review articles such as Datar and Betti , Kadim et al.
Technical challenges of producing cultured meat The challenge of producing cultured meat is to replicate the muscle-growing environment found in a cow or other animal and recapitulate it in the laboratory or factory. Meat, muscle and in-vitro myocyte culture To understand the technical challenges, definitions of meat, muscle biology, and in-vitro culture of muscle cells need to be considered.
Tissue engineering of muscle for consumption as cultured meat The extent to which the biology of muscle is replicated will determine the complexity of the tissue engineering process. Cell source It is currently widely debated as to how best to source the cells. Mimicking the in-vivo myogenesis environment The building blocks of muscle are adherent cells which are immobile and embedded within the tissue.
Use of animal-derived and synthetic materials for the scaffold and media In most cases, both the synthetic scaffolds and culture media used could contain animal-derived products.
Bioprocessing Affordable production of cultured meat with a low carbon footprint and minimal waste can theoretically be achieved, however, the scale required for making cultured meat a commodity will be the largest ever for tissue engineering. Consumer, political and regulatory aspects of cultured meat 5. Ethical and consumer perspectives on cultured meat So far the dominant framings of the social issues related to cultured meat have been ethics and consumer acceptance see, for example Hocquette, i and the special issue it introduces.
Consumer acceptance and public perception studies A second important area of study has been the opinions of various publics about cultured meat. Social, political and institutional impacts While these ethical and consumer acceptance issues remain crucial avenues of enquiry, our argument here is that it is equally vital to extend the analysis of cultured meat to also consider the related social, political and institutional implications it may incur.
Anticipated regulatory pathways A small but important set of literatures on the regulation of cultured meat exists, with Schneider considering regulation in the United States and Petetin considering the European Union.
Conclusion This article has aimed to review the current context of cultured meat by focusing upon the interrelated technical and social aspects of the field, while retaining a willingness to critically engage with the technology.
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Environ Res. Particulate urban air pollution affects the functional morphology of mouse placenta. Biol Reprod. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. Eur Heart J. Download references. We thank the MIMA2 platform for access to medical imaging equipment. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article and its additional files. PF and JB monitored the exposition.
JA and AT performed electronic microscopy. SV and AT performed all other analyses on placenta. PCP supervised the project. All authors discussed and granted the results. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Sarah A. Paul H. Inserm and Univ.
Correspondence to Pascale Chavatte-Palmer. Ultrasound embryo measurements at 7 dpc in first generation. Ellipse was used to measure embryo diameters. Diameter 1 represents the longest one and Diameter 2 the shortest one. All data are expressed as median [Q1;Q3]. Ultrasound fetal measurements at 21 dpc in the first generation. Ultrasound placental measurements at 21 dpc. Mean Grey represents the density of tissu of interest. Morphological analysis of labyrinthine area at 28 dpc from first generation.
Head measurements during gestation and post-mortem. During gestation, head length was measrued by ultrasound.
Post-motem, head measurements were performed using a digital caliper. Distribution of nanoparticles in the maternal lungs at 28 dpc. Arrowhaeds indicate particles in alveoli, small arrowheads indicate NP and arrows thin or not indicate isolated particles. Fetoplacental biometry at 28 dpc for the second generation.
Dams were allowed to give birth generation F1. Adult F1 female 7. Fetoplacental units of generation F2 were collected in control C and exposed E groups. Effect of grand-dam F0 pregnancy exposure to engine diesel exhaust on second-generation fetuses was estimated using linear model with random effect of dam F1 adjusted for number of fetuses by dam, fetus position in the horn and fetus sex. Reprints and Permissions. Valentino, S.