Johns, A. Text, role and context: Developing academic literacies. Latour, B. Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. Beverly Hills: Sage. Mead, G. Mind, self, and society , ed. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Munby, J. Communicative syllabus design. Myers, G. Writing biology: Texts in the social construction of scientific knowledge. Pennycook, A.
Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism and EAP. English for Specific Purposes , 16 , — Phillipson, R. Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: OUP. Porter, J. For a variety of reasons, it proves difficult to maintain ESP instruction in higher education. These reasons include the incompetence of teachers, lack of materials for that specific context, as well as lack of opportunities for ESP teachers to develop their skills.
The chapters in this book, taken from a wide variety of countries, shed light on the diversity of current practices and issues surrounding ESP.
It brings together the experience of practitioners and the accurate studies of researchers. From Languages for Speciic Purposes p. Bloor and T. Bloor, Reprinted by permission of Trinity College, Dublin, Ire- land. Thus, in ESP, language is learnt not for its own sake or for the sake of gaining a general education but to smooth the path to entry or greater linguistic eficiency in these environments.
As the syllabus is based on needs, it is likely to be motivating for learners, who see the obvious relevance of what they are studying. Moreover, most ESP courses are subject to time constraints and time must be effectively utilized West, As students in ESP classes often have restricted time to learn English, it makes sense to teach them only the bits of English they need.
Thus the task of the ESP course developer is to identify the needs of the learner and design a course around them. A number of needs analysis studies are reported in the ESP literature. Chia, Johnson, Chia, and Olive report their investigation of the English language needs of medical students in Taiwan. Sakr reports a study into the English language needs of textile and clothing industry workers in Cairo, and Evangelou reports a project to explore the English language needs of nurses.
Needs analysis studies have investigated the perceptions of language needs of different parties and have often revealed differing perceptions. Jasso-Aguilar investigated the perspectives of maids and the institutional representatives of the hotel in Waikiki in which the maids worked.
Li So-mui and Mead report the needs analysis they conducted to help them prepare an ESP course for students of textile and clothing merchandising in Hong Kong. Their project set out to obtain information on the types of communication required in the industry. They used a range of research methods to collect data including questionnaire surveys, telephone interviews, analysis of authentic correspondence, and visits to the workplaces of the merchandisers.
The study revealed that the merchandis- ers used written English far more than spoken English in their work; that fax and telephone calls were more common channels of communication than e-mails and letters, and that there was a high use of abbreviations in written communication.
This approach to needs analysis involves in-depth ethnographic data collection methods such as observations and exploratory interviews. Needs analysis in ESP has been critiqued and a number of issues iden- tiied in this seemingly neutral enterprise. For example, engineering students may objectively need to deal with written texts concerned with technical matter but may want to read topics in English on other general interest subjects.
Using technical texts, topics, or tasks may turn out to be demotivating. It is improbable that students with unsophisticated knowledge about language would make sound decisions about their needs Chambers, ESP has sometimes produced a rigid view of language needs and failed to take account of the variation of language use that exists in any target situation. This approach involved the attempt to identify not only the English language functions that would be needed for example, by a waiter working in a Spanish tourist resort but also the actual linguistic formula for realising these functions.
Learners are trained to perform a re- stricted repertoire of the language rather than develop underlying linguis- tic competence of the language because they are deprived of the generative basis of language Widdowson, Needs analysis purports to be a neutral enterprise but in fact is often used by institutions to get others to conform to established communicative practices Benesch, One needs analyst may aim to identify the language functions used in a particular environment whereas another may aim to identify high frequency syntactic features or lexical items occurring in the same environment.
Graves discusses the language cur- riculum and syllabus. She describes the curriculum as a broad statement of the philosophy, purposes, design, and implementation of the entire language teaching program and the syllabus as a speciication and ordering of content of a course. The seemingly straightforward procedure of specifying and ordering content involves, however, embracing one or more of a number of theoreti- cal stances.
If they construe language as a set of communicative purposes, they would probably list various pragmatic func- tions speech acts of language such as request, report, and describe as course content. Those who embrace the view that learning occurs when learners acquire individual items of language one by one and later combine them might opt for a synthetic syllabus that lists the linguistic items to be learnt.
Those who embrace a view that learning occurs when learners perceive patterns in language samples and induce rules from them might opt for an analytic syllabus and list items that do refer not to language units but to some other sort of unit, such as task, situation, or topic.
When teachers and course designers opt for a synthetic approach and list items for the syllabus, the type of items listed reveals their ideas about what is important in two ways: 1.
Is language best seen as the expression of intended actions of individual users speech acts or as patterns of language use that emerge in group practices over time genres? Does language come in sentences or texts? The selection of items included reveals ideas about what is impor- tant.
We may list pragmatic functions indicating a view of language as the intended actions of individual users speech acts. However, as the number of possible pragmatic functions is very long, we need to select the pragmatic functions we see as the most important. We may feel that knowing how to request factual information and responding to requests to it are essential elements and thus include them in our list. This might indicate our orienta- tion to an idea that language for speciic purposes is concerned irst and foremost with conveying factual information—the referential function of language.
We may think that offering condolences or eliciting sympathy are somehow less essential and not include them, indicating a view that language for speciic purposes is not about social purposes. The academic, workplace and professional environment to which ESP students are headed may be little different from other environments in regard to the importance of social intercourse.
Halliday uses the terms the referential and instrumental functions of language. The irst refers to language used to convey facts and knowledge; the second refers to language used to get things done. It has been assumed that social functions are less important than referential or instrumental functions in teaching ESP. Holmes reports on a study of the function of humor in the workplace. The more mitigation the pilots used, the higher their safety performance records became.
A study of spoken interaction in a factory setting Pascal Brown, revealed that half of all talk was social. The spoken interaction of the factory manager illustrates this. Fifty per cent of the exchanges the manager participated in were social. Social exchanges were an important means by which the manager got the work in the factory done.
As it is not possible to teach all of a language, teachers and course designers must be selective. Nowhere is this more so than in ESP teaching, with its emphasis on speciic purposes and the limited duration of most ESP courses.
It is often by selecting what to teach that language teachers show their notions of what language is and their beliefs as to what is important in language learning.
This point was also made by Hutchinson and Waters , who claimed that specifying course content was value laden and revealed our notions of what language is and how language is learned. In short, the selection of course content relects our ideas of language learn- ing. See Fig. Views of learning and course content. They also point out that courses are often based on a combination. Structural organized primarily around grammar and sentence patterns. Functional organized around communicative functions, such as identifying, reporting, correcting, describing.
Notional organized around conceptual categories, such as duration, quan- tity, location. Topical organized around themes or topics, such as health, food, clothing.
Situational organized around speech settings and the transactions associ- ated with them, such as shopping, at the bank, at the supermarket. Skills organized around microskills, such as listening for gist, listening for speciic information, listening for inferences. Task- or activity-based organized around activities, such as drawing maps, following directions, following instructions. In EAP teaching, Flowerdew and Peacock a list the following types of syllabus: Lexico-grammatical organized around structures and vocabulary.
Functional-notional organized around language functions and notions. Discourse-based organized around aspects of text cohesion and coher- ence. Learning-centered organized on what the learners have to do in order to learn language items and skills, not the items and skills themselves. Skills-based organized around particular skills.
Genre-based organized around conventions and procedures in genres as units of analysis. Content-based organized around themes. Some syllabus types structural, functional, notional, discourse- and genre-based list the language to be taught. However, this is only one possible way to go. White identiies three options, listing content forms, situations, function, and topics , skills language or learning , or methods.
One methods option is the task-based syllabus, a syllabus type that is widely embraced at present. The task-based syllabus comprises a list of tasks for example, giving instructions or following directions that the students will perform. It is argued that tasks provide a purpose for using language meaningfully and that through struggling to use language to complete the task, the students acquire language. Whereas in general English language teaching tasks are chosen for the pedagogical value, in ESP they may be chosen for their relevance to real world events in the target environments.
The course developer can divide the students into classes according to their respective disciplines. The course developer might further divide the groups. The engineering students could be split into English for computer engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering classes. Or the course developer might not group the students according to discipline at all and prefer to design a English for General Academic Purposes EGAP program. Another course developer is faced with a group of mixed experienced medical profession- als.
Should the developer divide them into subdisciplines—nurses, doctors, and medical technicians—or simply split them up into proiciency levels and focus on general medical English rather than English for doctors, English for nursing, and English for medical technology? The question is how speciic, or narrow angled, ESP courses should be. Some approach the question of speciicity as a practical problem related to the speciicity of needs.
Dudley-Evans and St. John state that where needs are limited, a narrow-angled course may be appropriate and the course can legitimately focus on a few target events and use content or topics from one discipline. Where the needs are more general, the course can focus on a wider range of target events and use content and topics from a range of disciplines.
Others approach the question by referring to research indings. Clapham reports on research investigating the effect of background knowl- edge on reading comprehension in EAP. The investigation revealed that although students generally achieved higher scores on texts from their subject areas, this was not always the case, and sometimes students did better on texts that were outside their subject area.
The irst focuses on developing a set of generalized academic writing skills with the expectation that the learners will transfer these general skills and strategies to writing tasks in their own speciic discipline EGAP. The second focuses on teaching students to analyze and imitate the norms of the speciic discipline they wish to enter ESAP. Ferris surveyed U. Bosher and Smalkoski report a needs analysis to investigate the speaking and listening needs of immigrant nurses attending a nursing degree program in the United States.
Studies often focus on identifying the skills needed for a particular workplace or study in a discipline. See, for example, the metareview of research into lecture comprehension in EAP Tauroza, Arguably the academic reading and listening skills listed here are used in any number of reading and listening situations. For example, reading ilm reviews would involve the reader in distinguishing facts from opinions.
In listening to a friend in everyday conversation telling a personal narrative story, the listener again needs to identify the purpose of the talk and identify the relationship among units. What differs between listening in general everyday situations and in aca- demic lectures is not the nature of the microskills being utilized but rather the type of text involved in this case, a lecture or a story.
In analyzing needs, ESP curriculum designers identify which microskills from a general pool of skills used across a range of environments are important for a particular group of ESP learners. However, if a course aims to develop language skills, instruction needs to offer more than practice opportunities. This argument was made by Field in relation to listening.
Unless a course sets out intentionally to foster the development of skills, should it be termed a skills-based course? In my own teaching experi- ence when working on a writing course for engineering students at Kuwait University, the expected outcomes for the course were writing products, such as abstracts and recommendation reports. What are the speciic elements in English for Speciic Purposes?
Speciic and speciiable elements in the ESP curriculum. For example, instruction for the nursing students reported in Bosher and Smalkoski was oriented to cultural content. The nursing students need to know what topics are appropriate for nurse—patient interaction and in which circumstances small talk is seen as appropriate. In workplace, academic, or professional environ- ments and disciplines, certain language forms and features may occur more frequently than others and certain skills are used more often than others.
These can be identiied but they are not exclusive to those environments or disciplines. They are speciiable elements. It can be argued that language varieties are based in and extend from a common core of language. Or it can be argued that language varieties are self-contained entities. Needs analysis can be seen as an entirely pragmatic and objective endeavour to help course developers identify course content that is truly relevant to the learners, or it can be argued to have a bias in favour of the institutions and may overemphasize objective needs at the cost of subjective needs.
It can be argued that syllabuses should specify content what is to be taught. Or it can be argued that they should specify method how language is to be taught. Some argue that the ESP courses should be as narrow-angled as possible.
Others argue that this is not practi- cal or that it is unnecessary as learners can transfer what they learn from a more general course to their own highly speciic area at a later stage. Do you agree that learners generally should acquire words of general usefulness in English before they embark on learning vocabulary in specialized areas?
If you were conducting a needs analysis in preparation for developing an ESP course, what practical steps would you take to ensure that you gather the perspectives of all the different parties such as the learners, institutions, and teachers?
What would you do if there were signiicant differences in the perspectives of the parties? Review the course book that you are currently using in your ESP class. What type of syllabus is it based on? If it is organized around one element in particular for example, skills or grammar , how are other elements integrated into the design? Interview a teacher or course developer who has conducted a needs analysis for an ESP situation. Find out what type of needs the analysis aimed to identify and whose perspectives were investigated.
Discuss with colleagues any problems you envisage in devising wide-an- gled ESP courses for example, English for General Academic Purposes or English for General Healthcare Professionals and whether you think you could overcome them.
This study was based on a corpus of texts from academic journals and textbooks in a range of disciplines from arts, commerce, law, and science. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of narrow- and wide-angled course design in ESP is given in Basturkmen Hopper deines language systems as a set of abstract structures present for all speakers and hearers that is a prerequi- site for the use of language.
This chapter examines three language systems evident in ESP teaching and research. The irst two of these, grammatical structures and core vocabulary, are examined together irst, and the third, patterns of text organization, is examined in the last section. It has been a traditional idea that second-language instruction should focus on a set of basic sentence-level grammatical structures for example, verb tenses, con- ditional clauses, noun phrases and core vocabulary.
This idea has featured in ESP instruction also. One early approach to ESP, Register Analysis, was concerned with iden- tifying and teaching the grammatical structures and vocabulary seen as of central importance in scientiic and technical writing.
The approach was premised on the ideas that although scientiic and technical writing has the same grammar as general English, particular grammatical structures and vocabulary items are used more frequently. The study investigated how well the students knew a set of core vocabulary items.
It aimed to establish how many words the students knew and their depth of knowledge of the words, such as their understand- ing of the range of uses of the words. KB bring a wide range of practical experience in ESP to their book and one of its chief virtues is its pragmatic approach. What is noteworthy is that not all of the students would seem to have a clear idea of their purpose in learning English, and that several of the groups are not homogeneous, although such factors clear purpose, homogeneity have been offered Phillips, as essentials of.
Your name. Close Send. This cenclude that the growing of ESP course material need to understand the target situations. ESP makes specific the every contex study base on learners need, so teach ESP has meaning that they study in the deeper context of knowledge of the context and texts that occur within it.
In the decades of the s and s have seen a rapid increase in research and have continued the expansion on major ESP topics. According to johns , the emergence of international journal as well as the marked rise in the amount of internasional submissions and the publications have consolidated the importance and rlevance of ESP today. ESP has existed as separate branch of langugae teaching for around 40 years. In the begining of ESP focused upon the specific lexicon of technical and scientific text, and changed its emphasis towards the rhetorical uses of language in precise discourses.
And after that the study about the four skill and language that students need to achieve in their performance. Today the development of ESP is about focus on teach or study about procedure and materials development in teaching its principles and theory have been more clearly outlined and shaped by the passing of time.
Definition of ESP ESP is the study need to change in every period and there are so many author has different definition about ESP, in the definitiontion that ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning" Hutchinson and Waters, ESP has absolute characteristics and variable characteristics.
The first absolute characteristics of ESP are about in the learning process, ESP consist of English language teaching, designed to meet specified neds of the learners, related to content, to particular disciplines, occupations and activities, the centered study are about activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc, ESP is contrast with the general English, ESP is not necessary, restricted as to the language skill to be learned, taught according to any pre-ordained methodology.
English for specific purpose help learners to make focus their study, and base on their purpose study they have a spirit to finished their study, because students are understand about their need to study its help teacher to conduct the classroom and materials.
ESP is the study need to change in every period and there are so many author has different definition about ESP, in the definitiontion that ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning" Hutchinson and Waters, Likewise, Strevens stated that "ESP is a particular case the general category of specific purpose language teaching.
English for specific purpose helpa learners to make focus their study, and base on their purpose study they have a spirit to finished their study, because students are understand about their need to study its help teacher to conduct the classroom and materials.
Teacher need to define the material, method in the learning process. For example, aviation English as ESP is tought to pilots, air traffic controllers and civil aviation cadets who are going to use it in radio communications. Most people streven, ; Robinson, ; Widdowson, ; Dudley-Evans and St John, have agreed that an ESP course would have the following features, the purpose and aimed at the successful performance of occupational or educational roles by an individual or a group, it is based on an analysis of the students need and is tailor - made to meet these needs, it my differ from another general language course in its selection of skills, themes, topics, situation, functions, language and methodology.
EAP includes also EST English for science and technology for the purposes of finds himself of herself involved in an ESP environtment with students needing an ESP learning, all of aspect in the learning process should be designed from the content, forms, methodology of teaching, and finally the set communicative functions and abilities that should be achieved by students.
English for specific purpose teaching involves teaching English with particular attention to certain area, for example, business, tourism, medicine, the law or engineering. For example in the world of business. Today in the skill of writing already a course specifically to mastering in the writing skill, students who want to take an external certificate qualifications e.
The development of ESP until now is helpful for the learners, an approach base on the need in the business like those course is need to synergy in so many aspects there are students, environment, teachers and the sources. The last development of ESP teaching refer to teaching non-linguistic skills. The comprehending of pragmatic and sociolinguistics skill it is kinds of material that influence the quality of human word to say. ESP define this material in business field especially in the important part of business communication.
Today learners want to be study about the good communication not only to able communicate with English, this part is relevance that there are teachers have an obligation to understand and able to prepare materials in so many field. For more than 50 years of ESP courses learners needs have always been most relevant and central in the practice of ESP teaching. Today is so different with the yers of s or s.
Today who want to achieve the good competence in their English they have to able to spend their time, money, energy. Richard , the worldwide demand for English has created an enormous for quality language teaching, material and resources.
This describe that the development of ESP teaching is influenced by the spirit of learners that follow the changes of the world, especially the globalization. Actually, This is not a problem but its the movement from all of the elements in teaching ESP, that define the students and teacher prepare their skill in high quality. The part of development about ESP is in this section, ESP growth with the growth of students need to study and the world need. With ESP there already a didactic case studies, students have opportunity to use their creative thinking, and find the problem solving, and make a decision.
ESP define this kind of model is used in the medicine, management, an in finance field. Students that very close with technology motivate teacher uses the technology as a part of the learning. Today the kind of E-course with gives Online materials effective in study English, with so many materials that students can find easily in the online course.
English for specific purpose define this part of Online course the new role model in teaching with technology and its will be growth in the next about the materials and all of the aspect to practice this online course. European Journal of Social Sciences. English for Specific Purposes. Kozminski University, Warsaw.
Wartburton, K. Terminology: Getting Down to Business. Retrieved from: www. The history of English for specific purposes research. Starfield Eds. Swales, J. The ESP Journal, 1 1 , 11— In the beginning s when ESP is started, the way English teacher view the field of ESP today is far different than the way they viewed it in the s. In the s ESP practitioners believed their main job was to teach the technical vocabulary of a given field or profession.
If they were teaching nursing students, their task was to teach the learners the medical vocabulary of nursing. Later, teachers of ESP began to recognize the importance of sub-technical vocabulary, that is, the words and phrases that surround the technical words. In s, Hutchinson and Waters first introduced the idea of learning English through content of a subject e. Economics or management.
By the s, in many parts of the world, a needs-based philosophy appeared in language teaching. Many students learnt ESP not because they were merely willing to know English but rather to do a task in English. It is said that the best way in learning a language is to use it for meaningful aims. CLIL is an approach for learning content through an additional language foreign or second , thus teaching both the subject and the language.
Many experts considered CLIL a great way in learning English which give the learners with meaningful input and authentic suggested. Such tasks can include visiting a doctor, conducting an interview, or calling customer service for help. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome in other words the appropriate completion of tasks rather than on accuracy of language forms.
This makes TBLL especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence. Register analysis This stage operates on the basic principle that the English, of, say, Electrical Engineering constituted a specific register different from other registers such Biology or of General English. The aim of the analysis was to identify the grammatical and lexical features of the registers.
The main motive behind register analyses such as Ewer and latorres was the pedagogic one of making the ESP course more relevant to learners needs. The aim was to produce a syllabus which gave high priority to the language forms students would meet in their Science studies and in turn would give low priority to forms they would not meet. The teaching materials focused on these linguistic features which represented the syllabus. Now that a first stage in the exploration of English has reached its terminal point, namely the study of the word structure down to its smallest lexical component, the E.
The criticisms against register analysis were: - It restricts the analysis of text to the word and sentence level - It is only descriptive, not explanatory - Most materials produced under the banner of register analysis follow a similar pattern, beginning with a long specialist reading passage which lacks authenticity. Rhetorical and discourse analysis On the second phase of development, ESP became closely involved with the emerging field of discourse or rhetorical analysis.
This phase gives more understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning. The basic hypothesis of this stage, expressed by Allen and Widdowson : The difficulties which the students encounter arise not so much from a defective knowledge of the system of English, but from an unfamiliarity with English use, and that consequently their needs cannot be met by a course which simply provides further practice in the composition of sentences, but only by one which develops a knowledge of how sentences are used in the performance of different communicative acts.
Register analysis had focused on sentence grammar, but in rhetorical or discourse analysis, the attention and focus is to understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning.
The concern of research therefore was to identify the organizational patterns in texts and to specify the linguistic means by which these patterns are signaled. These patterns would then form the syllabus of the ESP course. The typical teaching materials based on the discourse approach taught students to recognize textual patterns and discourse markers. The priorities, for this decade, mean: - understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning - To identify the organizational patterns in texts - To specify the linguistic means by which these patterns are signaled.
All these patterns represented the syllabus. The ESP course design process should proceed by first identifying the target situation and then carrying out a rigorous analysis of the linguistic features of that situation.
The identified features will form the syllabus of the ESP course. The target situation analysis is also known as the learner-centered approach. In this phase, ESP was based on the reasons why student learnt English. The purpose of an E. Analysis of study skills and strategies The fourth stage of ESP has seen an attempt to look below the surface and to consider not the language itself but the thinking processes that underlie language use.
The principal idea behind the skills-centered approach is that underlying all language use. There are common reasoning and interpreting processes which enable learners to extract meaning from discourse. The focus should be on the underlying interpretive strategies which enable learners to cope with the surface forms: - guessing the meaning of words form context; - using visual layout to determine the type of text; - exploiting cognates i. As has been noted, in terms of materials this approach generally puts the emphasis on reading or listening strategies.
The characteristic exercises get the learners to reflect on analyze how meaning is produced in and retrieved from written or spoken discourse This approach generally concentrates on reading and listening strategies, the characteristic exercises get the learners to reflect on and analyze how meaning is produced in and retrieved from written or spoken discourse.
Analysis of learning needs a learning-centered approach This is the next stage of ESP development: the learning-centered approach. These stages started by identifying and analyzing learners register and focused on sentence level, and on second stages. ESP became closely involved with the emerging field of discourse or rhetorical analysis.
English was initially used for specific purposes - i. During their regime, the British promoted English education to fulfill the requirement of English-knowing Indians for administrative purposes.
They also connected English language with the employment opportunities for Indians. In Lord Hardinge, the then Governor General, declared that Indians who knew English would get preference in employment Chaudhary, Thus, English for employment was one of the objectives of teaching English in colonial India.
After independence, there are frequent changes in the language policies of the central and state governments Parasher, , nevertheless English has been a medium of instruction for many postgraduate courses. It also acts as a link language for inter-state communication in the country. In the last decade of the twentieth century it gained importance as the language of opportunities. There is hardly any domain where the use of English has been restricted. The rise of English as the global language has led to a greater demand for it in the twenty-first century.
Consequently the demand for ESP-based courses has increased in India. Though the regional languages had been a preferred option for tertiary education, the Education Commission of sowed the seeds of ESP in India by recommending teaching of English as a library language. As a result, the focus of teaching English at the school and college levels remained on reading comprehension, paving the way for English for Academic Purposes EAP in India.
This could be witnessed through the ESP projects initiated by the British Council in Indian universities in the s. Need-based English for On the basis of needs-survey and Science and Technology onwards analysis, the development of language NEST , IIT Kanpur curricula and need-based materials for science and technology students in the form of a resource book. Apart from funding the projects, the British Council helped in providing orientation and training to the teachers of English in India and developing teaching materials in the form of resource books.
The development of indigenized teaching materials is one of the features of ESP in India. Barring a few reputed universities, the research work on ESP is a rarity in Indian universities. There are many dissertations on the teacher training modules at the EFLU. These include ESP courses for the teachers of English at primary and higher secondary levels.
There is considerable research in the areas like Teaching English to Tribal Students. Apart from the seminal work on legal English by Bhatia not much work has been done in the areas like English for legal purposes and English for Military Purposes. It seems that enough attention is not paid towards academic skills of the UG students. For instance, there is a single study on EAP by Datta There are some studies e. There is no study with focus on reference sources other than dictionaries.
In comparison to the research on English for students of Science and Commerce and there is negligible research on English for students of humanities. The primary focus of research in ESP in India is on designing courses. Some studies focus on developing materials. Very few studies are on teaching methodology in ESP courses while there is negligible research on evaluation methods for ESP courses.
English for Professional Purposes In the past the technical institutions in India used to teach literary texts. In professional degree programs like B. Computer Science and Bachelor of Engineering B. These courses mostly focus on development of communicative English. Taking into account the exposure to technical English in professional courses, one should not ignore the fact that English of the students of these courses is shaped by the subject teachers rather than the teachers of English.
Very few Indian universities have recently taken initiatives to introduce need-based optional papers in ESP for the M. English students. This obliquely points towards the failure of UG level literature-based courses in developing communicative skills of the students.
Since the GE courses offered in the conventional degree programs, are based on assumptions rather than on needs analysis, the impact of ESP is limited to the course titles.
Mekala analyzed the needs of students majoring in English in the colleges affiliated to the UnoM. To overcome the drawbacks of the GE course for B. This course aims to help students to have a working knowledge of English, to take and make notes, to refer to source materials and to become independent learners.
In the light of current career-conscious learners seeking admission to the faculty of Arts [in contrast to the two decade old views about Indian college learners by Sood ], through the incorporation of such ESP-based papers, ESP could be the saviour for English studies in the Humanities. Arts, D.