This eliminates the need for a gas sparge ring that may block or corrode. The indue- tion effect eomes from the design of the hollow vanes. Gas is drawn through these into the low-pressure side of the impeller. When the speed is increased above a critical value, the pressure drop at the vanes exceeds the hydro- statie head and recirculation starts.
The overall mass-transfer performance of these impellers is generally much bet- ter than surface splashing or a vortex. Comparing self-inducing turbines, alone vane and channel types shows the higher efficieney of the vane type. This figure compares ma transfer log scale with different selt- inducing impellers oxygen in water at constant ionic strength of dissolved salt gas recirculation impeller. The mix- ture with a high concentration of gas and liquid reactants then flows to the cooling surfaces to remove the heat of reaction and reduce the risk of local overheating.
Several other performance charac teristies of the combined gassing sys- tem are also generally advantageous; 1. Reaction rate curves from a batch hydrogenation are given 1 surface gassing at 2 kW 2 and 3 combined gassing at 2 and 3 kWim? Another ex- mple comes from the saturation of double bonds in a complex organic molecule. Figure 8 illustrates that im- proved performance can be achieved using a modern combined -gassing sys- tem instead of an old surface-gassing system.
Gases with inert components Asdiscussed in the introduetion, many industrial processes use gases that are diluted with significant amounts of inert gas. Table ts examples of applications in this category. Processes that use gases with inerts have some unique properties com- pared to those that use pure gases. At these scales, the problem of homogeneity in the actor can become significant.
This, could be in terms of temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen, reactants or nutrients, and. With insufficient mixing, zones may exist where conditions are far from ideal. Get books you want. IHS Chemical Week. BC Magazine. British Columbia Magazine. Pacific Yachting. Materials Development Solutions. In a highly competitive marketplace, H. Starck is constantly testing, inspecting, and certifying our Tantalum tubes to the highest quality standards.
Starck provides reliable and innovative solutions to the chemical processing and pharmaceutical industries. Our products are highly corrosion resistant and virtually inert to acid attack. Many manufacturers rely on H. Starck for high performance materials, such as tantalum and niobium, used in linings for piping, tubing for heat exchanges, cladding for vessels, and other parts for dependable corrosion control:.
To find out more about how H. Starck can offer you high tech materials and highest quality testing, call Circle 19 on p. Circle 21 on p. Figure 1. The glass components of a CRT contain varying levels of lead, making them difficult to process. Recycling cathode Ray tubes. Crushing is an alternative to shred- ding for size red uction of CRT glas s. Brisbane, Calif. While shredding an entire CRT is less labor intensive than disassembly, sorting the resulting fragments calls for advanced separation equipment.
Optical sorting technologies have been. Typically, the sorting is performed on a slide or conveyor belt, with one or more arra ys of air ejectors separating the material.
Nash- ville, Tenn. The X-Sort technol- ogy separates shredded glass based on X-ray absorption levels. As CRTs become an obsolete form of video display technology, recycling their lead-filled glass is increasingly important.
E arlier this decade, liquid crys- tal display LCD and plasma screens surpassed cathode ray tubes CRTs as the visual dis-. While the production of CRTs has dwindled to nearly nothing, we will still deal with end-of-life EoL units for years to come. CRTs are being disposed of at an alarming rate, overwhelming landfills with toxic amounts of lead.
The implementation of proper processing methods for lead- containing glass is critical to the en- vironment ally safe and economically viable recycling of EoL CRTs. For the rest of this decade, it is predicted that the number of outdated computers will increase by million annually as a result of increased consumption and decreasing product lifespans. CRTs are recycled by initially ei- ther shredding the entire unit with or without casings , or separating the glass components panel, funnel, neck and frit.
Shredding results in a mix of glass and lead that is subsequently separated by electro-magnetic or den- sity methods. The resulting glass, which contains varying levels of lead, is often smelted in a furnace to convert the lead ore in a reaction with carbon- based fuel to elemental lead. Separat- ing the g lass components first requires manual separation of the CRT from its housing and other exterior parts.
Then, separating the glass before shredding allows the individual glass streams to be sent to either glass-to-glass GtG processors or smelters. Recycling technologies. CRTs pose the greatest problems to the electronics recycling industry for both their environmental risk and processing difficulty.
Hazardous lev- els of lead, mercury and hexavalent chromium are found in CRTs, making. Seeking new solutions. Innovation by Berndorf! Specializing in sulphur handling systems we offer various equipment for granulation and transport, e. Long term experience supplying individual units along with complete steel belt systems, equipped with high-quality steel belts from Berndorf Band, make u s an application-driven solutions provider.
Circle 22 on p. Visit us at:. Frankfurt, May 11 - Hall 4. Berndorf Belt Systems. The processes creates a chemical change in the glass, which causes it to frac- ture at the weakest point of the CRT around the frit lines , cleanly sepa- rating the panel from the funnel. Such careful separation methods create exit streams of clean, reusable glass. One of the major issues hampering CRT recycling, as Magalini points out, is downstream markets for lead-contain- ing glass, considering the decrease in demand for new CRT production.
Though the GtG options for used CRT glass are quite limited, they are worth investigation, he adds, as they are an economical alternative to send- ing all glass to cost-intensive smelters. Current uses for EoL CRT glass include heavy clay construction prod- ucts brick, pave ment, roofing tile a nd piping , as well as ceramic products. Dlubak Glass Upper Sandusky, Ohio; www. Herb Schall, director of Dlubak, says that their products are finding a place in an emerging domestic mar- ket for building materials.
The ce- ramic beads create unique physical. Upcom- ing plans for Dlubak include the use of the relatively lead-free CRT panel glass for producing beads that will be used in road striping. Doe Run Co. Louis, Mo. Ground CRT glass is fed to a blast furnace, where the glass acts as a silica-replacement flux in the smelting. The new RecipCOM delivers diagnostics, protection and therapy for your reciprocating compressors. Spread the word! The resulting metal is recycled into refined lead for batteries.
Regulating end-of-life CRTs. Generally, there is a lack of regulation of electronics recycling, but the U. The EPA provides conditional exclu- sions from federal hazardous-waste- management standards for CRTs based upon their condition, time in storage, and storage and transportation condi- tions. Additionally, exporters shipping CRTs to another country must notify the EPA and wait for written consent, which prevents the shipment of CRTs to developing countries that would not recycle the units safely.
Currently, nineteen. Most of these regulations require elec- tronics manufacturers to implement recycling or recovery programs, or pay an advanced fee or a fee per unit for the cost of processing their products. Many of these laws specifically control the disposal of TV and computer moni- tors, or specifically CRTs. For example, since April , Massachusetts law prevents the disposal, incineration or transfer for disposal of CRTs at a solid waste disposal facility.
Increasing stringency on the state level is a step in the right directi on, but most electronics recycling initiatives agree that national systems should be put in place.
The e-Stewards program, among other U. The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE Directive became European Law in February , restricting the use of hazardous substances in electronic equipment, while promoting the col- lection, recovery, and recycling of such equi pment. Such a system puts the responsibility to create an efficient and responsible electronics-recycling infrastructure on the shoulders of electronics manufacturers. For more information please contact compressor-mechatronics hoerbiger.
Circle 23 on p. Fiatech hopes the ISO standard will provide much needed interoperability to project management. Electronic project handover has helped but standardization issues with data and system compatibility remain. P roject management can be a messy, complex issue for all in- volved parties and, likely, the most hair-raising aspect of all is. In the past, this literally involved a truck pulling up with cartons and boxes chock full of engineering docu- ments, drawings, operations manuals and catalogs.
From there, the project owner usually took the load into a room somewhere in the facility where op- erations and maintenance staff would later spend countless hours searching for the particular drawing or manual they needed for a repair or other task.
In recent years though, both parties have become more sophisticated and made the process a digital one. How- ever, the electronic handover has not eliminated issues such as poor-quality information and missing documents, drawings and manuals.
In fact, the digital handover has created several new challenges associated with in- compatible data formats. But, both EPCs and owner operators are work- ing on the challenge with the help of software gurus and Fiatech Potomac, Md. General challenges. In all handover situations, incomplete data provided by the EPC, cloudy specifications from the project owner.
This, he says, results in incomplete and incorrect informa- tion. VTL is. It submits imported data to quality control before data extraction for loading into target sys- tems, which can include SmartPlant Enterprise information management and engineering design tools or third- party applications. The system allows owner operators to use any mapping tool capable of generating extensible style sheet language transformations XSLT to map incoming data from the EPC or export data into target sys- tems.
VTL also permits users to define their own rules and to add pre-defined rules to rule sets that then run against future data submissions. Once infor- mation is in the staging area, users can validate the quality of the data against those pre-defined rules. It then supports the initiation of loading programs to get data into the Smart- Plant or third-party applications.
Compounding this problem for EPC firms is that all its clients have differ- ent data delivery requirements and. And by doing just that and by. This means en-. With an international engineering capacity. This worldwide network with over 4, We offer our customers not only cost-. Visit us at. Frankfurt a. Circle 24 on p.
A company of ThyssenKrupp Technologies. In brownfield projects, a lot of time is needed just getting old data to a workable point.
Low tolerance for pump problems? No problem. Pressure to lower ever-increasing maintenance costs and reduce environmental impact has paved the way to better surface pumping solutions. The SPS is a cost-effective solution for processing, petroleum, mining, water and other industries that require high-pressure movement of fluids. Proven benefits include:. Call this number: Or e-mail sps woodgroup.
Wood Group. Surface Pumps. Circle 25 on p. It incorporates a number of modules, including scope management, time management, cost management, com- munications and procurement, which are integrated and synchronized with the document repository. Because not all engineering firms have their own software designed to handle the challenges associated with the now-continual process of hand- ing over data, Walters says.
Bentley has developed ProjectWise Lifecycle Server to assist both parties with data handover. The application is also capable of managing change through attribute- level change history tracking, segrega- tion of proposed changes from current. Bechtel Corp. Although the advent of software tools has alleviated some of the pain associ- ated with handover management, the solutions have, in some ways, birthed their own set of problems. Digital plant handover problem.
Consider, for example, the project owner DuPont, which has in place best practices that describe the documen- tation that needs to be turned over to the plant. The best practices let the engineering firm know what parts of the documentation they need to turn over to operations and maintenance — a step that was recommended by the experts above.
One is. DuPont also uses 3D plant models. SAP is also used by DuPont as a business and enterprise application. Other SAP modules for plant main- tenance are employed, as well. SAP on the maintenance side to track. Engineering portals, too, are applied by DuPont to link all this information together, allowing users to click quickly through a variety of applications and look at multiple pieces of information about the same piece of equipment on one computer screen.
Switch to a new, truly innovative approach to running your process in the concentrated phase. Get ready. Lower operating costs. Less solvents. Circle 26 on p. The soft- ware has provided accessibility and visibility of information. This means the informa- tion is stored within separate applica- tions. There are islands of automation, manually input data, little connectivity and information is still hard to find be- cause there are many user interfaces. Circle 27 on p. What you think of is the information you want, not which ap- plication the information is in.
With the ability to bring together informa- tion from disparate applications and data sources, the portal provides a uni- fied, Web-based, digital plant.
According to Clive Wilby, principle consultant with AVEVA, this helps with handover because it can check the quality of data and ensures that no gaps exist and later provides a database of information for the project owner. However, Burton and others in the industry say some problems still per- sist because good, standard data in- tegration does not yet exist. Making matters more difficult is that most of the projects undertaken today, due to the poor economy, are improvement projects on existing fa- cilities, rather than greenfield projects.
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