Share on Facebook. Features of the Book Full coverage of all syllabus content. Definitions of key terms.
Report Close Quick Download Go to remote file. Documents can only be sent to your Kindle devices from e-mail accounts that you added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List. Place a measuring cylinder on a balance. Set the balance to zero. Now pour liquid into the cylinder. Read the volume from the scale on the cylinder. The balance shows the mass.
In this experiment, you are going to make measurements to determine the densities of some different materials. Use blocks that have a regular shape. Can you tell which is the more dense? If they are cubes, you should check that the sides are truly equal. For repeated calculations like this, it helps to record your results and calculations in a table like the one shown.
Did you put the materials in the correct order? Questions 1. It is in the form of a cube. Each edge of the cube is 1. Calculate the density of the steel. She uses the method of displacement to find its volume.
Her measurements are shown in the diagram. Calculate the volume of the steel and its density. In the lab, you might need to record the temperature of a container of water every minute, or find the time for which an electric current is flowing. For measurements like these, stopclocks and stopwatches can be used. For example, a digital stopwatch might show a time of When studying motion, you may need to measure the time taken for a rapidly moving object to move between two points.
In this case, you might use a device called a light gate connected to an electronic timer. This is similar to the way in which runners are timed in major athletics events.
There is more about how to use electronic timing instruments in Chapter 2. For a sprinter, a fraction of a second perhaps just 0. Measuring short intervals of time Figure 1. If you pull the bob gently to one side and release it, the pendulum will swing from side to side.
The time for one swing of a pendulum from left to right and back again is called its period. A single period is usually too short a time to measure accurately.
However, because a pendulum swings at a steady rate, you can use a stopwatch to measure the time for a large number of swings perhaps 20 or 50 , and calculate the average time per swing. Any inaccuracy in the time at which the stopwatch is started and stopped will be much less significant if you measure the total time for a large number of swings. When using a stopwatch, it may be easier to start timing when the pendulum passes through the midpoint of its swing.
Then one complete swing is to one side, to the other side, and back to the midpoint. In this experiment, you will measure the time for one complete swing of the pendulum. You will need a stopwatch to time the swings. You may have a watch or mobile phone that can act as a digital stopwatch. One complete swing of a pendulum is from the centre to the right, to the left, and back to the centre.
The time for this is the period of the pendulum. It is easier to start and stop the watch when the pendulum passes through the middle of its swing, that is, when the string is vertical. Measure the time for a single complete swing. Repeat this ten times. How much do your values vary? Now calculate the average. Do your answers differ by much? Test this idea. What is the time interval between one frame and the next?
The answers are slightly different. Suggest some possible experimental reasons for this. The table shows four quantities that you may have to measure in physics. Copy the table and complete it by listing one or more measuring instruments for each of these quantities. To find the density of a substance, we need to measure the mass and volume of a sample of the substance. Copy and complete the table to show the correct units for density.
Unit of mass. The drops fall at regular intervals of time. Describe how you would find an accurate value for the time between drops. A student is collecting water as it runs into a measuring cylinder. She uses a clock to measure the time interval between measurements. The level of the water in the cylinder is shown at two times, together with the clock at these times.
A student is measuring the density of a liquid. He places a measuring cylinder on a balance and records its mass. He then pours liquid into the cylinder and records the new reading on the balance. He also records the volume of the liquid.
The inside of a sports hall measures 80 m long by 40 m wide by 15 m high. The air in it has a density of 1. State the equation you are using. A geologist needs to measure the density of an irregularly shaped pebble. The diagram shows her displacement results for sample A. Calculate its density. When full of air, the flask has a mass of The flask is connected to a vacuum pump, the air is pumped out and then the tap is closed.
The flask now has a mass of Calculate: a the mass of the air in the flask before connecting to the vacuum pump, in g b the density of the air in the flask. The following five steps are intended to describe how the volume of the stone is found.
Copy and complete the sentences by adding appropriate words. Measuring speed If you travel on a major highway or through a large city, the chances are that someone is watching you see Figure 2. Cameras on the verge and on overhead gantries keep an eye on traffic as it moves along. Some cameras are there to monitor the flow, so that traffic managers can take action when blockages develop, or when accidents occur. Other cameras are equipped with sensors to spot speeding motorists, or those who break the law at traffic lights.
In some. Drivers should know how fast they are moving — they have a speedometer to tell them their speed at any instant in time. Alternatively, traffic police may time a car between two fixed points on the road.
Figure 2. Understanding how drivers behave is important not only for safety, but also to improve the flow of traffic. In Chapter 3, we will look at how physicists came to understand the forces involved in motion, and how to control them to make our everyday travel possible. Distance, time and speed As we have seen, there is more than one way to determine the speed of a moving object, which is defined as shown.
We can use the equation for speed in the definition when an object is travelling at a constant speed. If it travels 10 m in 1 s, it will travel 20 m in 2 s. We cannot say whether it was travelling at a steady speed, or if its speed was changing. Dividing distance by time would tell you their average speed, but they might have been speeding up or slowing down along the way. Table 2. In practice, many other units are used.
In US Using a stopwatch involves making judgements as to when the cyclist passes the starting and finishing lines. This can introduce an error into the measurements. An automatic timing system might be better. These awkward units did not prevent them from reaching the Moon! Worked example 2. What was her average speed? Step 1: Start by writing down what you know, and what you want to know. There are many experiments you can do in the lab if you can measure the speed of a moving trolley or toy car.
The light gate has a beam of invisible infrared radiation. On the left, the peg attached to the trolley breaks the beam of one light gate to start the timer. It breaks the second beam to stop the timer.
The timer then shows. Step 2: Now write down the equation. Questions 2. Skills AO3. Safety Take care when running or cycling. The aim is to move at a steady speed, not to go as fast as possible.
Do not stand close to where people are running or cycling. Do not leave the school grounds unless you have permission to do so. In athletics contests, runners are usually timed from the moment when the race starts to when they cross the finishing line.
Your task is to measure the speed of someone moving quickly in the school grounds. They may be running or cycling. You should try to develop a method that is as accurate as possible. How accurately can you measure the time taken? Compare your results and try to explain any differences. This may help you to refine your technique. How can you decide whose is best?
On the right, a piece of card, called an interrupt card, is mounted on the trolley. As the trolley passes through the gate, the leading edge of the interrupt card breaks the. When the trailing edge passes the gate, the beam is no longer broken and the timer stops.
The faster the trolley is moving, the shorter the time for which the beam is broken. Activity 2. Use lab equipment to measure the speed of a moving trolley or toy car. Start by checking whether you will be able to use one or two light gates to determine the speed of the trolley. Then try the following. We can rearrange the equation to allow us to calculate distance or time.
For example, a railway signalman might know how fast a train is moving, and need to be able to predict. Make sure that someone or something is positioned to catch the trolley at the lower end. How does the speed of the trolley depend on the height of the top end of the ramp?
How long will it take to complete a single orbit, a distance of 40 km? Step 4: Perform the calculation. So the spacecraft takes 83 minutes to orbit the Earth once. Studyy tip p It is better to remember one version of an equation and how to rearrange it than to try to remember three different versions. What is its speed? Show the correct units. How far will it travel in one day? Give your answer in km.
After five minutes, it reached the highway, where it was able to speed up. After ten minutes, it was forced to stop because of congestion. B The graph becomes steeper. The distance of the coach from its starting point is increasing more rapidly. It is moving faster. C The graph is flat horizontal. The distance of the coach from its starting point is not changing. It is stationary. The slope of the distance—time graph tells us how fast the coach was moving. The steeper the graph, the faster it was moving the greater its speed.
When the graph becomes horizontal, its slope is zero. It was not moving. Question 2. It stopped suddenly for a few seconds.
Then it continued its journey, at a slower speed than before. It travelled at a steady speed along the main road, heading out of town. The steepest section B corresponds to the greatest speed. The horizontal section C shows that the coach was stationary.
Then ask your partner to write a description of it on a separate sheet of paper. Choose four graphs and their descriptions. Display them separately and challenge the class to match them up. However, when it sets off on its journey, it may take several minutes to reach this top speed. Then it takes a long time to slow down when it approaches its destination. It takes time to accelerate speed up and decelerate slow down. For example, they let us know which features and sections are most popular.
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