alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia

alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Hidden categories: Commons category link is on Wikidata Wikipedia categories named after English scientists Wikipedia categories named after mathematicians Wikipedia categories named after philosophers. Namespaces Category Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In , Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D. Champernowne , began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist.

In , lacking a computer powerful enough to execute the program, Turing played a game in which he simulated the computer, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded; [27] the program lost to Turing's colleague Alick Glennie , although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne's wife. Turing worked from until his death in on mathematical biology , specifically morphogenesis. He published one paper on the subject called "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" in , putting forth the Turing hypothesis of pattern formation.

He used reaction-diffusion equations which are now central to the field of pattern formation. Later papers went unpublished until when Collected Works of A. Turing was published. Turing was homosexual , and at that time homosexuality was illegal in the United Kingdom , [5] regarded as a mental illness and subject to criminal sanctions. In , Arnold Murray, a year-old recent acquaintance of his, [29] helped an accomplice to break into Turing's house, and Turing went to the police to report the crime.

As a result of the police investigation, Turing acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray, and a crime having been identified and settled, they were charged with gross indecency under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of Turing was unrepentant and was convicted of the same crime Oscar Wilde had been convicted of more than fifty years before.

He was given the choice between imprisonment and probation, conditional on his undergoing hormonal treatment designed to reduce libido. In order to avoid going to jail, he accepted the estrogen hormone injections, which lasted for a year, with side effects including gynecomastia breast enlargement. His conviction led to a removal of his security clearance and prevented him from continuing consultancy for GCHQ on cryptographic matters.

At the time, there was acute public anxiety about spies and homosexual entrapment by Soviet agents, possibly due to the recent exposure of the Cambridge Five as KGB double agents.

Turing was never accused of espionage. On 8 June , his cleaner found him dead; the previous day, he had died of cyanide poisoning , apparently from a cyanide-laced apple he left half-eaten beside his bed. The apple itself was never tested for contamination with cyanide, but a post-mortem established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning.

Most believe that his death was intentional, and the death was ruled a suicide. His mother, however, strenuously argued that the ingestion was accidental due to his careless storage of laboratory chemicals.

Biographer Andrew Hodges suggests that Turing may have killed himself in this ambiguous way quite deliberately, to give his mother some plausible deniability.

Since , the Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person for technical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world's equivalent to the Nobel Prize. Various tributes to Turing have been made in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In a stretch of the A road the Manchester city intermediate ring road was named Alan Turing Way.

A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name 'Alan Turing Bridge'. Turing was interested in artificial intelligence. He proposed the Turing test , to say when a machine could be called " intelligent ". A computer could be said to "think" if a human talking with it could not tell it was a machine. Using cryptanalysis , he helped to break the codes of the Enigma machine.

After that, he worked on other German codes. He presented a paper on 19 February That paper was "the first detailed design of a stored-program computer ". In late he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year. Turing was a homosexual man. Although suicide cannot be ruled out, it is also possible that his death was simply an accident, the result of his inhaling cyanide fumes from an experiment in the tiny laboratory adjoining his bedroom.

Nor can murder by the secret services be entirely ruled out, given that Turing knew so much about cryptanalysis at a time when homosexuals were regarded as threats to national security.

Alan Turing. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Home Science Mathematics. So what do people think about the running categories he is in, and saying more about running in the article? Billlion , 12 November UTC. I think we can't say that: "He proved that such a machine would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical problem if it were representable as an algorithm " This is something that Turing proposed, and is generally accepted.

It is usually argued that this cannot be proved, and wasn't by Turing, and that's why it's called the "Turing thesis" or "Church-Turing thesis". He did prove the halting problem for Turing machines though. I was interetsed to read this on the Foveran page: 'The hereditary baronetcy of Foveran is held by the Turing family.

Does anyone have more information? Would he have inherited the baronetcy had he not died so early? They usually give both BE and AE pronunciations should they differ. Which is correct? That all sounds rather concise and everything, but yeah I'm pretty sure it's 'Tyuring' as the guy above you said. Anything more elaborate kinda makes things unnecessarily complicated. Still, that's never stopped us Americans from pronouncing things and people hideously wrong from time to time :D —Preceding unsigned comment added by The following references identify Alan Turing as having had Asperger syndrome, or identify him as a possible case.

At least two of the authors of these items are professors, and at least two of them are Asperger syndrome experts. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. James, Ioan Asperger syndrome and high achievement: some very remarkable people. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Attwood, Tony The autism epidemic — real or imagined. I would definitely suggest that someone add this material to the article.

Somewhere else there is a comment that the article relies too much on Hodges' wonderful biography. This is another perspective. Jfgrcar talk , 5 October UTC. I was looking at the picture, and trying to figure out if he's holding an apple in the hand resting on the bench. Can anyone confirm that this is the case? It would seem somewhat appropriate, with the sense of humor he had.

Or at least, that I've read about. D1universe talk , 3 February UTC. Yeah, I've been there, he is indeed holding an apple. Very appropriate, I thought. Bearing in mind, of course, that the apple also symbolises stolen knowledge, and that Turing was an avowed atheist. Would anyone object to changing the first reference to homosexual to gay?

Homosexual is a cold clinical term kind of dehumanizes him and the struggles that we gay people have gone through. Church of emacs has changed 'gay' back to 'homosexual'. I would support the change, as this was the term in use at the time and 'gay' had a different meaning. The argument that 'homosexual' dehumanises Turing seems to me to have no validity—historical judgements should be made with an understanding of the context of the time.

Is should stays as is. I am hetrosexual, not straight. Also, the word 'gay' has other meanings - homosexual does not. Jacobsdad talk , 12 September UTC. Could someone please salvage the footnotes? The entire "Turing in Fiction" section is not only full of trivia, but technically doesn't even belong in this article:. Unless there are objections, I'm going to remove the whole section.

Appropriate, as far as I can judge. Glad the info is still here , though. Derekbd talk , 5 November UTC. This page is practically a "poster child" for semi-protection -- there's a remarkably steady stream of vandalism from randomly distributed sources. Do others agree? Over half the traffic on my watchlist is vandalism to this article.

It all gets fixed quickly, but just the sheer noise level on our watchlists is an impediment to real work, I think. The policies seem to suggest the initial request be for a limited period of time, to see if the problem goes away.

I think the idea is that makes the culprits get bored and move on. But it doesn't look like a small number of people or even groups are responsible, so I suspect we'll wind up having this page permanently semi-protected. Alternatively, we could use the vandalism as a random number generator. Its incidence seems to be a very nice white noise approximation. During the investigation, he acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray.

Homosexual acts were criminal offences in the United Kingdom at that time, [] and both men were charged with " gross indecency " under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act Turing was later convinced by the advice of his brother and his own solicitor, and he entered a plea of guilty.

Turing and Murray, was brought to trial on 31 March His probation would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal physical changes designed to reduce libido.

He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES , a synthetic oestrogen ; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year. The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused breast tissue to form , [] fulfilling in the literal sense Turing's prediction that "no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I've not found out".

He was denied entry into the United States after his conviction in , but was free to visit other European countries. Turing was never accused of espionage but, in common with all who had worked at Bletchley Park, he was prevented by the Official Secrets Act from discussing his war work. On 8 June , Turing's housekeeper found him dead at the age of 41; he had died the previous day.

Cyanide poisoning was established as the cause of death. An inquest determined that he had committed suicide. Andrew Hodges and another biographer, David Leavitt , have both speculated that Turing was re-enacting a scene from the Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , his favourite fairy tale.

Both men noted that in Leavitt's words he took "an especially keen pleasure in the scene where the Wicked Queen immerses her apple in the poisonous brew". Philosophy professor Jack Copeland has questioned various aspects of the coroner's historical verdict. He suggested an alternative explanation for the cause of Turing's death: the accidental inhalation of cyanide fumes from an apparatus used to electroplate gold onto spoons.

The potassium cyanide was used to dissolve the gold. Turing had such an apparatus set up in his tiny spare room. Copeland noted that the autopsy findings were more consistent with inhalation than with ingestion of the poison.

Turing also habitually ate an apple before going to bed, and it was not unusual for the apple to be discarded half-eaten. He even set down a list of tasks that he intended to complete upon returning to his office after the holiday weekend. Conspiracy theorists pointed out that Turing was the cause of intense anxiety to the British authorities at the time of his death. The secret services feared that communists would entrap prominent homosexuals and use them to gather intelligence.

Turing was still engaged in highly classified work when he was also a practising homosexual who holidayed in European countries near the Iron Curtain. According to the conspiracy theory, it is possible that the secret services considered him too great a security risk and assassinated one of the most brilliant minds in their employ. It has been suggested that Turing's belief in fortune-telling may have caused his depressed mood. Shortly before his death, during a day-trip to St Annes-on-Sea with the Greenbaum family, [ when?

But it was a lovely sunny day and Alan was in a cheerful mood and off we went Then he thought it would be a good idea to go to the Pleasure Beach at Blackpool. We found a fortune-teller's tent[,] and Alan said he'd like to go in[,] so we waited around for him to come back And this sunny, cheerful visage had shrunk into a pale, shaking, horror-stricken face.

Something had happened. We don't know what the fortune-teller said[,] but he obviously was deeply unhappy. I think that was probably the last time we saw him before we heard of his suicide. In August , British programmer John Graham-Cumming started a petition urging the British government to apologise for Turing's prosecution as a homosexual. Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated.

While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better.

In December , William Jones and his Member of Parliament, John Leech , created an e-petition [] requesting that the British government pardon Turing for his conviction of "gross indecency": []. In , he was convicted of "gross indecency" with another man and was forced to undergo so-called "organo-therapy"—chemical castration. Two years later, he killed himself with cyanide, aged just Alan Turing was driven to a terrible despair and early death by the nation he'd done so much to save.

This remains a shame on the British government and British history. A pardon can go some way to healing this damage. It may act as an apology to many of the other gay men, not as well-known as Alan Turing, who were subjected to these laws.

The petition gathered over 37, signatures, [] [] and was submitted to Parliament by the Manchester MP John Leech but the request was discouraged by Justice Minister Lord McNally , who said: []. A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence.

He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence that now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, long-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those times.

John Leech , the MP for Manchester Withington —15 , submitted several bills to Parliament [] and led a high-profile campaign to secure the pardon. Leech made the case in the House of Commons that Turing's contribution to the war made him a national hero and that it was "ultimately just embarrassing" that the conviction still stood. Leech's campaign gained public support from leading scientists, including Stephen Hawking.

On 26 July , a bill was introduced in the House of Lords to grant a statutory pardon to Turing for offences under section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act , of which he was convicted on 31 March At the bill's second reading in the House of Commons on 29 November , Conservative MP Christopher Chope objected to the bill, delaying its passage.

The bill was due to return to the House of Commons on 28 February , [] but before the bill could be debated in the House of Commons, [] the government elected to proceed under the royal prerogative of mercy.

On 24 December , Queen Elizabeth II signed a pardon for Turing's conviction for "gross indecency", with immediate effect. In a letter to the Prime Minister, David Cameron , human rights advocate Peter Tatchell criticised the decision to single out Turing due to his fame and achievements when thousands of others convicted under the same law have not received pardons.

A new inquiry is long overdue, even if only to dispel any doubts about the true cause of his death—including speculation that he was murdered by the security services or others. I think murder by state agents is unlikely. There is no known evidence pointing to any such act. However, it is a major failing that this possibility has never been considered or investigated. In September , the government announced its intention to expand this retroactive exoneration to other men convicted of similar historical indecency offences, in what was described as an " Alan Turing law ".

The law applies in England and Wales. Turing was appointed an officer of the Order of the British Empire Turing has been honoured in various ways in Manchester , the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In , a stretch of the A road the Manchester city intermediate ring road was named "Alan Turing Way".

A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name Alan Turing Bridge. The memorial statue depicts the "father of computer science" sitting on a bench at a central position in the park. Turing is shown holding an apple. However, the meaning of the coded message is disputed, as the 'u' in 'computer' matches up with the 'u' in 'ADXUO'.

As a letter encoded by an enigma machine can not appear as itself, the actual message behind the code is uncertain. A plaque at the statue's feet reads 'Father of computer science, mathematician, logician, wartime codebreaker, victim of prejudice'. There is also a Bertrand Russell quotation: "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty—a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture.

In , Time magazine named Turing as one of the Most Important People of the 20th century and stated, "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine.

In May it was reported by Gay Star News that a foot 3. Historic England , however, was quoted as saying that the abstract work of 19 steel slabs " This would result in harm, of a less than substantial nature, to the significance of the listed buildings and landscape, and by extension the conservation area.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Turing disambiguation. English mathematician and computer scientist. Maida Vale , London, England. Wilmslow , Cheshire, England. Logic Mathematics Cryptanalysis Computer science Mathematical and theoretical biology [1].

Main article: Bombe. United Kingdom. Scotland Northern Ireland. Crown dependencies. Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man. Overseas Territories. Same-sex marriage by territory. Sexual orientation. Gender identity. Protection and recognition. By city. Brighton London Liverpool Leeds Manchester. Gay villages.

Gay male.

For a time he led Hut 8the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia German ciphersincluding improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many where to watch black sails for free alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia, including the Battle of the Atlanticand in so doing helped win the war. The Automatic Computing Engine was one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. InTuring joined Max Newman 's Computing Machine Laboratoryat the Victoria University of Manchesterwhere he helped develop the Manchester computers [15] and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov—Zhabotinsky reactionfirst observed in the s. Alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia was prosecuted in for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment of had mandated that "gross indecency" was a criminal offence in the UK. He accepted chemical castration treatment, with DESas an alternative to prison. Turing died in16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is also consistent with accidental poisoning. Infollowing an Internet campaignBritish Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an 3gp to avi converter free download public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in The " Alan Turing law " is now an informal term for a alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants that had been based in the Netherlands and included a baronet. However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale[20] London, where Alan Turing was alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia on 23 Juneas recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth, [21] [22] later the Colonnade Hotel. Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years Turing's parents travelled between Hastings in the United Kingdom [25] and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. Very early alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was later to display prominently. The location is also marked with a blue plaque. The headmistress recognised his talent early on, as did many of his subsequent teachers. Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope he will not fall between two stools. If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated. alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (London, 23 June – Wilmslow, Cheshire, 7 June ) was an English mathematician and computer scientist. He was born. Talk:Alan Turing/Archive 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. < Talk:Alan Turing. Category:Alan Turing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Wikimedia Commons. Alan Turing, British mathematician and logician, a major contributor to mathematics, cryptanalysis, computer science, and artificial intelligence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search. Alan Turing. Born, 23 June Stephen Hawking & first wife Jane Wilde, they met through Hawking's sister shortly before he was diagnosed with motor neurone disease at May 19, - Alan Turing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A blue plaque marking Turing's home at Wilmslow, Cheshire (Alan Turing - Wikipedia). Alan Turing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. the free encyclopedia. Alan Turing - A complete and working replica of a bombe at the National Codes Centre. Alan Turing. British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. Language · Watch · Edit · Mathematical reasoning may be regarded rather. Rough Draft Printing published The bet specifies the conditions in some detail. Archived from the original on However, the meaning of the coded message is disputed, as the 'u' in 'computer' matches up with the 'u' in 'ADXUO'. Therefore, the machine usually has two special states marked as Accept and Reject. Though the system worked fully, with Turing demonstrating it to officials by encrypting and decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use. As such, it is a pragmatic attempt to answer a difficult philosophical question. He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES , a synthetic oestrogen ; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year. Retrieved 19 July Cayman Islands. Descartes fails to consider the possibility that future automata might be able to overcome such insufficiency, and so does not propose the Turing test as such, even if he prefigures its conceptual framework and criterion. alan turing wikipedia the free encyclopedia